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"Deterrence is the art of producing in the mind of the enemy,

the fear to attack"-Dr. Strangelove

Cross-Domain Deterrence (CDD)... the use of capabilities of one type to counter threats or combinations of threats of another type in order to prevent unacceptable attacks. Examples might include using air power to retaliate for terrorism or cyber disruption of military command and control.

CDD is not a new problem—actors have long combined disparate means to pursue political goals or evade their opponents’ deterrent threats—but the complexity of CDD in the contemporary world makes understanding it more important than ever.

The importance of cross-domain deterrence research

The emergence of new military technology, such as cyber warfare or anti-satellite and space-based weapons, and the interdependence of threat technology with civilian infrastructure, creates major challenges for conventional frameworks for deterrence.

A wide range of political actors, from rising powers like China to regional spoilers like Russia and Iran and even non-state actors, now seek to leverage emerging threat capabilities for advantage against powerful actors like the United States, which in turn look to exploit the same technologies to safeguard their interests.

While strategic actors have employed a variety of means such as naval and land forces to pursue coercive objectives since antiquity, the rise of threats to space and cyber infrastructure makes deterrence particularly challenging for policymakers and theorists today.

Non-military coercive options such as economic sanctions or population flows, as well as the growing influence of non-state actors in global politics, further complicate the strategic calculus.

Cross-Domain Deterrence: Strategy in an Era of Complexity

Erik Gartzke and Jon R. Lindsay’s edited volume available now.

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Why Republicans Don't Push Back on Trump's China Tariffs

cPASS graduate student Jack Zhang co-authored a Monkey Cage article with John Seungmin Kuk and Deborah Seligsohn concerning Trump's China tariffs in August 2018.

Read in the Washingotn Post

The Diversification of Deterrence: New Data and Novel Realities

This paper, written by Shannon Carcelli and Erik Gartzke, shines light on the reemergence of deterrence theory and explores the three major categories of changes in the international system--new actors, new means of warfare, and new contexts--that have led to the corresponding changes in the way that deterrence is theorized and studied.

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Restrained by Design: the Political Economy of Cybersecurity

In this paper, Jon Lindsay writes that maintenance of common protocols and open access is a condition for the possibility of attack, and successful deceptive exploitation of these connections becomes more difficult in politically sensitive situations as defense and deterrence becomes more feasible.

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Blood and robots: How remotely piloted vehicles and related technologies affect the politics of violence

While considerable attention has been devoted to the role of technology in transforming warfare, little is known about how new modes of combat will affect established motives for using force. Erik Gartzke’s article explores these political dimensions.

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