Skip to main content



 1). Lindsay, Jon R., and Erik Gartzke, eds. Cross-Domain Deterrence: Strategy in an Era of Complexity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019. 

     1) Jon Lindsay and Erik Gartzke, “Cross-Domain Deterrence, from Practice to Theory”

     2) Michael Nacht, Patricia Schuster, and Eva Uribe, “The Concept of Cross-Domain Deterrence in

     American Foreign Policy”

     3) Patrick M. Morgan, “The Past and Future of Deterrence Theory”

     4) Ron Lehman, “Simplicity and Complexity in the Nth Nuclear Era”

     5) Jacquelyn Schneider, “Deterrence in and through Cyberspace”

     6) Benjamin Bahney, Jonathan Pearl, and Michael Markey, “Anti-Satellite Weapons and the

     Instability of Deterrence”

     7) Phil Haun, “Air Power Versus Ground Forces: Deterrence at the Operational Level of War”

     8) Joshua Rovner, “Sea Power Versus Land Power: Cross-Domain Deterrence in the

     Peloponnesian War”

     9) James Morrow, “International Law and the Common Knowledge Requirements of

     Cross-Domain Deterrence”

     10) Brendan R. Green and Austin G. Long, “Signaling with Secrets: Evidence on

     Soviet Perceptions and Counterforce Developments in the Late Cold War”

     11) Rupal Mehta, “Extended Deterrence and Assurance in Multiple Domains

     12) Kelly Greenhill, “Weaponizing People as Non-Military Instruments of Cross-Domain Coercion”

     13) Joshua R. Itzkowitz Shifrinson, “Linkage Politics: Managing the End of the Cold War”

     14) Chin-Hao Huang and David Kang, “Beyond Military Deterrence:

     The Multidimensionality of International Relations in East Asia”

     15) Jon Lindsay and Erik Gartzke, “The Analytic Potential of Cross-Domain Deterrence”

2). Lindsay, Jon R. Information Technology and Military Power. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, Forthcoming.




  1. Gartzke, Erik. 2020 "China Didn't Create the Coronavirus to Attack America (Or Anyone Else)" The National Interest
  2. Gartzke, Erik. 2020 "How wars in Iraq and Afghanistan contributes to today's deteriorating civil-military relations" The Orange County Register
  3. Gartzke, E. 2020 "The benefits of American disinterest in world affairs" Opinion Contributor- The Hill
  4. Soper, Braden C. “A Cyber-Nuclear Deterrence Game” In 2019 57th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control and Computing (2019). 
  5. Gartzke, Erik. “Blood and Robots: How Remotely Piloted Vehicles and Related Technologies Affect the Politics of Violence.” Journal of Strategic Studies 0, no. 0 (October 3, 2019): 1–31. 
  6. Mehta, Rupal N. “Extended Deterrence and Assurance in an Emerging Technology Environment.” Journal of Strategic Studies 0, no. 0 (June 3, 2019): 1–25. 
  7. Bahney, Benjamin, and Jonathan Pearl. “Why Creating a Space Force Changes Nothing.” Foreign Affairs, March 26, 2019. 
  8. McKeown, Ryder. "The Power and Perils of International Law: A Review Essay on Lawfare, Constructivism and International Lawpower," International Politics Reviews 5:2 (December 2017): 105-119. 
  9. Gartzke, Erik, and Matthew Kroenig. “Social Scientific Analysis of Nuclear Weapons: Past Scholarly Successes, Contemporary Challenges, and Future Research Opportunities.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 61, no. 9 (October 1, 2017): 1853–74. 
  10. Carcelli, Shannon, and Erik Gartzke. “The Diversification of Deterrence: New Data and Novel Realities.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, September 2017.
  11. Gartzke, Erik, and Jon R. Lindsay.  2020. “The Influence of Seapower on Politics:  Domain- and Platform-Specific Attributes of Material Capabilities.”  Security Studies. Appendix

  12. Gartzke, Erik A., Shannon Carcelli, J. Andres Gannon, and Jiakun Jack Zhang. “Signaling in Foreign Policy.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, August 22, 2017.
  13. Gartzke, Erik A., and Paul Poast. “Empirically Assessing the Bargaining Theory of War: Potential and Challenges.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, August 22, 2017.
  14. Gartzke, Erik, and Jon R. Lindsay. “Thermonuclear Cyberwar.” Journal of Cybersecurity 3, no. 1 (February 2017): 37–48. 
  15. Gartzke, Erik, and Koji Kagotani. 2017.  “Being There:  U.S. Troop Deployments, Force Posture and Alliance Reliability.”  

  16. Gartzke, Erik, and Oliver Westerwinter. “The Complex Structure of Commercial Peace Contrasting Trade Interdependence, Asymmetry, and Multipolarity.” Journal of Peace Research 53, no. 3 (May 1, 2016): 325–43.
  17.  Gartzke, Erik, and Jon R. Lindsay. “Weaving Tangled Webs: Offense, Defense, and Deception in Cyberspace.” Security Studies 24, no. 2 (2015): 316–48.
  18. Lindsay, Jon R. “Tipping the Scales: The Attribution Problem and the Feasibility of Deterrence against Cyber Attack.” Journal of Cybersecurity 1, no. 1 (2015): 53–67. 
  19. Gartzke, Erik, and Jiakun Jack Zhang. “Trade and War.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Political Economy of International Trade, edited by Lisa L. Martin. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. 


Book Chapters

17. McKeown, Ryder, and Alex Wilner. “Deterrence in Space and Cyberspace.” In Canadian Defence Policy in Theory and Practice, edited by Juneau T., Lagassé P., Vucetic S. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020.
18. Gartzke, Erik, and Jon R. Lindsay. “The Cyber Commitment Problem and the Destabilization of Nuclear Deterrence.” In
Bytes, Bombs, and Spies: The Strategic Dimensions of Offensive Cyber Operations, edited by Herbert S. Lin and Amy B. Zegart. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2018.
19. Lindsay, Jon R., and Erik Gartzke. “Coercion through Cyberspace: The Stability-Instability Paradox Revisited.” In
Coercion: The Power to Hurt in International Politics, edited by Kelly M. Greenhill and Peter Krause, 179–203. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. 20. Lindsay, Jon R., and Erik Gartzke. “Cross-Domain Deterrence and Cybersecurity: The Consequences of Complexity.” In US National Cybersecurity: International Politics, Concepts and Organization, edited by Damien van Puyvelde and Aaron F. Brantley. New York: Routledge, 2017.
21. Gartzke, Erik, and Jon R. Lindsay. “Windows on Submarines: The Dynamics of Deception in the Cyber and Maritime Domains.” In
Issues in Maritime Cyber Security, edited by Joseph DiRenzo III, Nicole K. Drumhiller, and Fred S. Roberts, 417–32. Washington, DC: Westphalia Press, 2017.

Reports and Other Writing

22. Soper, Braden C. “A Game Theoretic Model of Thermonuclear Cyberwar.” Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States), August 23, 2017.
23. Lindsay, Jon R. “Cyber Operations and Nuclear Weapons.” Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability, 20 June 2019.

24. Gartzke, Erik and Jon R. Lindsay.“The U.S. wants to stop North Korean missiles before they launch. That may not be a great idea.” The Monkey Cage, The Washington Post, 15 March 2017.
25. Lindsay, Jon R. “The Real Cyberespionage Rule: Don’t Get Caught,” Policy Forum, Asia & the Pacific Policy Society, January 2016.
26. Haggard, Stephan, and Jon R. Lindsay. “North Korea and the Sony Hack: Exporting Instability Through Cyberspace,” AsiaPacific Issues, May 2015. 

Under Review

27. Gartzke, Erik and Jon R. Lindsay. “Disaggregating Deterrence: Balancing Risk, Influence, Power, and Cost in Coercive Strategy”
28. Lindsay, Jon R., and Erik Gartzke. “Politics by Many Means: The Comparative Strategic Advantages of Different Military Domains.”
29. J. Andres Gannon, Erik Gartzke, and Jon R. Lindsay. “After Deterrence: Explaining Conflict Short of War.”
30. Early, Bryan R., and Erik Gartzke. “Spying from Space: Reconnaissance Satellites and Interstate Disputes.”
31. Kaplow, Jeff, and Erik Gartzke. “The Determinants of Uncertainty in International Relations”
32. Gartzke, Erik, and James Igoe Walsh. “Drones and Their Drawbacks: The Effects of RPV’s on Escalation and Instability in Pakistan.”
33. Schram, Peter. “Hassling: How States Prevent a Preventive War”

Work In Progress

35. Soper, Braden C. and Benjamin Bahney. “Nuclear Deterrence, Brinksmanship and Counterforce in the Cyber Age.”
36. Schram, Peter. “Hassling and Deterrence Failure”
37. Gartzke, Erik, Jon R. Lindsay, and Baljot Singh. “Rock, Paper, Scissors: Offset Strategies across Different Military Domains in the Cold War and After”
38. Chorley-Foster, Jasmine, and Jon R. Lindsay. “Uncommon Domains: Global Commons, Warfighting Domains, and the Legitimation of Hegemony”
39. Jiao Jinhui, Jon R. Lindsay, Benjamin Smalley. “Sharing the High Ground: Civilian and Military Perspectives on Space Security in China.”
40. Gartzke, Erik, and Koji Kagotani. “Trust in Tripwires: Deployments, Costly Signaling and Extended General Deterrence.”
41. Gartzke, Erik, and Matthew Kroenig. “Sleeping Giant or Paper Tiger?: Latent Potential, Conventional Capabilities and Interstate Conflict.” Typescript.
42. Gartzke, Erik, and Patrick Hulme. “The Tyranny of Distance: Assessing and Explaining the Apparent Decline in U.S. Military Performance.”
43. Kagotani, Koji, and Erik Gartzke. “Gaining Credibility: Alliances and U.S. Overseas Deployments”
44. Gartzke, Erik, and Egle Murauskaite. “Gray Zones and Boiling Frogs: An Experimental Assessment of Defender Preferences in Extended Immediate Deterrence.” 45. Gartzke, Erik, Jeffrey M. Kaplow, and Rupal N. Mehta. "Deterrence and the Structure of Nuclear Forces.”